Friday, July 17, 2020

What is cancer?

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Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the growth of abnormal cells with the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These differ from benign tumors, which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include numbness, abnormal bleeding, chronic cough, unexplained weight loss, and changes in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, there may be other causes.  Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity, or excessive alcohol consumption. Other factors include some infections, exposure to ionizing radiation, and environmental pollutants. In developing countries, 15% of cancers are caused by infections such as Helicobacter pylori, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Human papillomavirus infection, Epstein-Barr virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These factors work to some extent by altering the genes of the cell. In general, many genetic changes are required before cancer can develop. About 5 to 10% of cancers are caused by genetic defects inherited from a person's parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or tests. It is usually examined by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.

 What is cancer?

Many cancers can be prevented by smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, abstaining from alcohol, eating too many vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, avoiding some infectious diseases, eating too much red and processed meat, and overeating. Exposure to sunlight. . . Early detection is useful for the detection of cervical and colon cancer. The benefits of screening for breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is often treated with a combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Pain and pathological management are an important part of care. Palliative care is very important in people with advanced disease. The likelihood of survival depends on the type of cancer and the extent of the disease at the beginning of treatment. In children younger than 15 years of age at diagnosis, the 5-year survival rate in the developed world is an average of 80%.
In 2015, approximately 90.5 million people had cancer. Each year, approximately 14.1 million new cases occur (no skin cancer except melanoma). This accounts for approximately 8.8 million deaths (15.7% of deaths). The most common types of cancer in men are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and colon cancer. In women, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer are the most common types. If skin cancer is included in all new cases of melanoma along with melanoma each year, this represents approximately 40% of cases. In children, severe lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors are more common in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, except in Africa. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age and most cancers occur in developed countries. As people live to old age, rates increase and lifestyle changes occur in developing countries. Cause
Causes of cancer
The proportion of tobacco-related cancer deaths in 2016.
In about 90-95% of cases, most cancers are caused by genetic alterations in environmental and lifestyle factors. The environment represents a genetically inherited lifestyle, economic and behavioral factors rather than pollution. Common environmental factors that cause death from cancer are tobacco (25–30%), diet and esophagus (30–35%), infection (15–20%), radiation (ionization and ionization, up to 10%). Lack of physical activity and pollution. Psychological stress does not appear to be a risk factor for the development of cancer, although it may worsen the outcome for those who already have cancer.
Generally, it is not possible to show what causes a particular cancer because there are no specific fingerprints for different reasons. For example, if a person who develops tobacco develops lung cancer, it is most likely caused by tobacco use, but since everyone develops lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, one of them can develop cancer. Reasons. Cancer is not usually infectious except for rare infections with pregnancy and topical organ donors.
Chemical products
More info: Alcohol and Cancer and Smoking and Cancer.
The incidence of lung cancer from smoking is highly correlated.
Exposure to specific substances has been linked to specific types of cancer. These substances are called carcinogens.
 It causes cancer of the larynx, head, neck, stomach, bladder, kidneys, esophagus, and pancreas. Tobacco smoke contains more than fifty known carcinogens, including nitrosamine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Tobacco is one of the five causes of cancer worldwide and one in three in the developed world. Ung lung cancer deaths in the United States reflect a pattern of smoking, with an increase in smoking, an unprecedented rise in lung cancer mortality, and, more recently, smoking rates since the 1950s. Decreased since 1990, thereafter decreased lung cancer mortality in men.
In Western Europe, 10% of cancers in men and 3% of cancers in women are due to alcohol exposure, most notably the liver and digestive tract cancer. Exposure to work-related substances causes cancer in 2 to 20% of cases, killing at least 200,000 people. Lung cancers like lung cancer and mesothelioma are caused by exposure to tobacco smoke or asbestos fibers or benzene from leukemia.

 What is cancer?

Diet and exercise
Main article: Diet and cancer.
Diet, physical inactivity and escalation are associated with up to 30–35% of cancer deaths the UK study has data from more than 5 million people, showing that a high body mass index is associated with at least 10 types of cancer and causes about 12,000 cases each year in that country. Physical inactivity is believed to contribute to cancer risk, not only through its effects on body weight but also through adverse effects on the immune system and the endocrine system. More than half the impact of food is due to malnutrition (eating more) than eating too few vegetables or other healthy foods.
Certain foods are related to specific cancers. A high salt diet is associated with gastric cancer. Aflatoxin B1 is a common food contaminant that causes liver cancer. Chewing betel nut causes oral cancer. National differences in dietary patterns may partly explain differences in cancer incidence. For example, a high salt diet makes gastric cancer more common in Japan, and colon cancer is more common in the United States

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